by Daniel V. Schroeder, Department of Physics, Weber State University

Copyright ©2000, Addison-Wesley Publishing Company

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Part I: Fundamentals

**Chapter 1: Energy in Thermal Physics**

- 1.1
- Thermal Equilibrium
- 1.2
- The Ideal Gas

Microscopic Model of an Ideal Gas- 1.3
- Equipartition of Energy
- 1.4
- Heat and Work
- 1.5
- Compression Work

Compression of an Ideal Gas [problems]- 1.6
- Heat Capacities

Latent Heat; Enthalpy- 1.7
- Rates of Processes

Heat Conduction; Conductivity of an Ideal Gas; Viscosity; Diffusion

- 2.1
- Two-State Systems

The Two-State Paramagnet- 2.2
- The Einstein Model of a Solid
- 2.3
- Interacting Systems
- 2.4
- Large Systems

Very Large Numbers; Stirling's Approximation;

Multiplicity of a Large Einstein Solid;

Sharpness of the Multiplicity Function- 2.5
- The Ideal Gas

Multiplicity of a Monatomic Ideal Gas; Interacting Ideal Gases- 2.6
- Entropy

Entropy of an Ideal Gas; Entropy of Mixing;

Reversible and Irreversible Processes

Part II: Thermodynamics

- 3.1
- Temperature

A Silly Analogy; Real-World Examples- 3.2
- Entropy and Heat

Predicting Heat Capacities; Measuring Entropies;

The Macroscopic View of Entropy- 3.3
- Paramagnetism

Notation and Microscopic Physics; Numerical Solution;

Analytic Solution- 3.4
- Mechanical Equilibrium and Pressure

The Thermodynamic Identity; Entropy and Heat Revisited- 3.5
- Diffusive Equilibrium and Chemical Potential
- 3.6
- Summary and a Look Ahead

**Chapter 4: Engines and Refrigerators**

- 4.1
- Heat Engines

The Carnot Cycle- 4.2
- Refrigerators
- 4.3
- Real Heat Engines

Internal Combustion Engines; The Steam Engine- 4.4
- Real Refrigerators

The Throttling Process; Liquefaction of Gases;

Toward Absolute Zero

Part III: Statistical Mechanics

- 5.1
- Free Energy as Available Work

Electrolysis, Fuel Cells, and Batteries; Thermodynamic Identities- 5.2
- Free Energy as a Force toward Equilibrium

Extensive and Intensive Quantities; Gibbs Free Energy

and Chemical Potential- 5.3
- Phase Transformations of Pure Substances

Diamonds and Graphite; The Clausius-Clapeyron Relation;

The van der Waals Model- 5.4
- Phase Transformations of Mixtures

Free Energy of a Mixture; Phase Changes of a Miscible Mixture;

Phase Changes of a Eutectic System- 5.5
- Dilute Solutions

Solvent and Solute Chemical Potentials; Osmotic Pressure;

Boiling and Freezing Points- 5.6
- Chemical Equilibrium

Nitrogen Fixation; Dissociation of Water; Oxygen Dissolving

in Water; Ionization of Hydrogen

**Chapter 6: Boltzmann Statistics**

- 6.1
- The Boltzmann Factor

The Partition Function; Thermal Excitation of Atoms- 6.2
- Average Values

Paramagnetism; Rotation of Diatomic Molecules- 6.3
- The Equipartition Theorem
- 6.4
- The Maxwell Speed Distribution
- 6.5
- Partition Functions and Free Energy
- 6.6
- Partition Functions for Composite Systems
- 6.7
- Ideal Gas Revisited

The Partition Function; Predictions

- 7.1
- The Gibbs Factor

An Example: Carbon Monoxide Poisoning- 7.2
- Bosons and Fermions

The Distribution Functions- 7.3
- Degenerate Fermi Gases

Zero Temperature; Small Nonzero Temperatures;

The Density of States; The Sommerfeld Expansion- 7.4
- Blackbody Radiation

The Ultraviolet Catastrophe; The Planck Distribution; Photons;

Summing over Modes; The Planck Spectrum; Total Energy;

Entropy of a Photon Gas; The Cosmic Background Radiation;

Photons Escaping through a Hole; Radiation from Other Objects;

The Sun and the Earth- 7.5
- Debye Theory of Solids
- 7.6
- Bose-Einstein Condensation

Real-World Examples; Why Does it Happen?

* * *

- 8.1
- Weakly Interacting Gases

The Partition Function; The Cluster Expansion;

The Second Virial Coefficient- 8.2
- The Ising Model of a Ferromagnet

Exact Solution in One Dimension; The Mean Field Approximation;

Monte Carlo Simulation

**Appendix A: Elements of Quantum Mechanics**

- A.1
- Evidence for Wave-Particle Duality

The Photoelectric Effect; Electron Diffraction- A.2
- Wavefunctions

The Uncertainty Principle; Linearly Independent Wavefunctions- A.3
- Definite-Energy Wavefunctions

The Particle in a Box; The Harmonic Oscillator;

The Hydrogen Atom- A.4
- Angular Momentum

Rotating Molecules; Spin- A.5
- Systems of Many Particles
- A.6
- Quantum Field Theory

- B.1
- Gaussian Integrals
- B.2
- The Gamma Function
- B.3
- Stirling's Approximation
- B.4
- Area of a d-Dimensional Hypersphere
- B.5
- Integrals of Quantum Statistics

**Suggested Reading**

- Thermal expansion coefficients
- The exponential atmosphere
- The virial expansion for nonideal gases
- Gas escaping through a hole (effusion)
- Speed of sound in an ideal gas
- Convection in earth's atmosphere (adiabatic lapse rate)
- Climbing Mt. Ogden
- Temperature and heat capacity of a star
- One-dimensional random walk and diffusion
- Entropy and temperature of a black hole
- Thermodynamics of computing
- Heat capacity of an Einstein solid
- A simple model of a rubber band
- Chemical potential in a gravitational field
- Thermal pollution
- Maximizing the power of a Carnot engine
- Heat pump
- Absorption refrigerator
- Carnot's theorem
- Efficiency of the Otto and Diesel cycles
- The Stirling engine
- Efficiency of steam and refrigeration cycles
- Limits on magnetic cooling and laser cooling
- Glucose metabolism and muscle contraction
- Maxwell relations and their applications
- Magnetic work and magnetic analogues of H and G
- The grand free energy
- Efficiency of an ice engine
- The helium-3 phase diagram
- The calcite-aragonite phase diagram
- The aluminosilicate phase diagram
- Equilibrium in a solid-solid reaction
- Integrating the Clausius-Clapeyron equation
- Condensation and cloud formation
- Wet adiabatic lapse rate
- Nucleation of water droplets
- Magnetic analogue of the Clausius-Clapeyron relation
- Helmholtz free energy of a van der Waals fluid
- Critical exponents of a van der Waals fluid
- A simple model of mixing energy
- Purifying nitrogen and oxygen
- Phase diagrams for systems with azeotropes
- Phase diagram for a peritectic system
- Desalination by reverse osmosis
- Temperature dependence of equilibrium constants
- Acid rain, with and without sulfates
- Rotational excitations of interstellar CN molecules
- Protons and neutrons in the early universe
- Orthohydrogen and parahydrogen at low temperature
- Molecules escaping from an atmosphere
- Relativistic ideal gas
- Cooperative binding in hemoglobin
- Relativistic electron gas
- White dwarfs and neutron stars
- Two-dimensional Fermi gas
- Fermi gas at intermediate temperatures
- Semiconductors
- Electrons, positrons, and neutrinos in the early universe
- Efficiency of an incandescent light
- Hawking radiation from black holes
- Measuring stellar radii
- The greenhouse effect
- Debye theory of a two-dimensional solid
- Magnons
- Bose-Einstein condensation of rubidium-87 vapor
- Superfluid helium
- Heat capacity of a Bose gas
- Bose-Einstein condensation in a harmonic trap
- Second virial coefficient of an ideal quantum gas
- Second virial coefficient of nitrogen
- Energy and heat capacity of a weakly interacting gas
- Ising model with an external magnetic field
- Lattice gas interpretation of the Ising model
- Critical exponents of the Ising model
- Heat capacity and magnetization of a two-dimensional Ising model
- Block spin transformations of the Ising model
- The cosmological constant

*Last modified on January 11, 2013.*