## An Introduction to Thermal Physics

This textbook is intended for use in undergraduate courses in thermodynamics and statistical mechanics, at the sophomore through senior level. Its notable features include:

Part I: Fundamentals
• Chapter 1: Energy in Thermal Physics. An overview of temperature, ideal gases, equipartition, the first law, heat capacities, and transport processes.
• Chapter 2: The Second Law. Fundamental statistical ideas applied to two-state systems and the Einstein solid model; analysis of two interacting Einstein solids, leading to the second law; multiplicity of an ideal gas; statistical definition of entropy.
• Chapter 3: Interactions and Implications. Temperature, pressure, and chemical potential as partial derivatives of the entropy; the relation between entropy and heat; prediction of heat capacities and other thermal properties of a paramagnet, Einstein solid, and ideal gas (all microcanonical).
Part II: Thermodynamics
• Chapter 4: Engines and Refrigerators. Derivation of limits on efficiency from the laws of thermodynamics; Carnot cycle; realistic cycles for internal combustion engines, steam engines, and refrigeration; methods of reaching very low temperatures.
• Chapter 5: Free Energy and Chemical Thermodynamics. Definitions and interpretations of Helmholtz and Gibbs free energies; applications to electrochemistry, phase transformations, mixtures, dilute solutions, and chemical equilibrium.
Part III: Statistical Mechanics
• Chapter 6: Boltzmann Statistics. Boltzmann factors and partition functions, including applications to atomic and molecular excitations, paramagnetism, equipartition theorem, Maxwell distribution, ideal gases.
• Chapter 7: Quantum Statistics. Gibbs factors; Fermi-Dirac and Bose-Einstein distributions; degenerate electron gases; blackbody radiation; Debye theory; Bose-Einstein condensation.
• Chapter 8: Systems of Interacting Particles. Weakly interacting gases treated via diagrammatic perturbation theory, and an introduction to the Ising model emphasizing Monte Carlo simulation.
* * *
• Appendix A: Elements of Quantum Mechanics. A summary of the quantum mechanics that is used in the text, for those who wish for a more systematic treatment.
• Appendix B: Mathematical Results. Gaussian integrals, the gamma function, Stirling's approximation, and other derivations of results used in the text.