How is Free Will Possible?

Classical Newtonian physics describes
a precisely determined, clockwork world

==> predetermination is inconsistent with free will


Modern quantum physics describes
a nondetermined, probabilistic world

==> nondetermined outcomes are consistent with free will,
but a probabilistic (random) world is inconsistent with free will


Some physicists believe that
consciousness and free will
are the result of subtle quantum effects
in the brain!

Penrose4.BMP (191614 bytes)

Roger Penrose believes that systems of mircotubules
(little tubes made of protein) within (collections of) neurons
might sustain large-scale quantum-coherent brain activity
that constitutes conscious events.
(Diagram from Penrose, Roger, The Large, the Small, and the Human Mind.)

If so, then

this is another example of the fact that

if any of the three numbers in the Schrodinger equation ---

Planck's constant:  h

the electron's mass:  me

the electron's charge:  e

--- were even slightly different,

our physical (and mental) world would by profoundly changed!


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