Summary
The student learns to use a planisphere -- the projection of the celestial sphere on a plane. She will learn to locate constellations, stars, and planets at any time of year.

Background and Theory
The rotation of the Earth on its axis causes the stars to rise and set each evening. In addition, the orbit of the Earth around the Sun places different regions of the sky in our night-time view. A chart of the night sky will map the locations of the stars; a planisphere will let us know which stars will be visible during any time of night for any time of year.

Procedure Position the planisphere so that the side with the title (not the instructions) is facing you. Notice on the planisphere that the names of the constellations are given in all capital letters and that the names of the stars are given in smaller letters. Note, too, that the brighter the star is, the larger the representative circle. Find the magnitude scale that accompanies the planisphere (this may be included in a supplementary brochure). Note that the brighter the star the smaller the magnitude number.

Exercises

1. Define "horizon".

2. The oval hole on the planisphere represents the visible sky. What part of this oval represents the Earth's horizon?

#### Note the outside of the star wheel with the months and days indicated. Set the wheel to the month, day, and time of your birth. That is, line up the time of day with the day and month. (On some planispheres it is necessary to extrapolate to daylight hours if they are not marked.)

3. Define "zenith". Use the planisphere to find a star or constellation that was near the zenith when you were born.

4. Define "meridian". Name three stars or constellations that were on the meridian when you were born.

#### As you look at the planisphere, does it seem as if West and East are reversed? The planisphere represents a map of the sky. Hold the planisphere as you would if you were really outdoors observing.

5. Pretend you are facing North. How would you hold the planisphere?

6. Turn until you are facing West. What adjustment must you make with the planisphere so that you can accurately read the map? How about when you turn to face South or East?

#### Find the North, East, South, and West horizons on the planisphere.

7. What star was rising in the eastern sky at the time you were born?

8. What star was setting on or near the western horizon at the time you were born? What constellation was on or near the northern horizon?

#### Turn the planisphere counter-clockwise 360 degrees to represent the passing of 24 hours. Note the date passes through all of the times on the star wheel.

9. The central rivet "punches" through what star?

10. Why is this star used as the center?

11. If you were at the North Pole, where would you find this star?

12. If you were at the equator, where would you find this star?

13. This star is part of which constellation?

14. Name three constellations that are always above the horizon (never rise or set) from the northern, mid-latitudes.

15. Name two constellations that are visible at 10 pm tonight but not at 2 am tomorrow morning. (Thought question: What horizon should you be looking at on the planisphere?)

#### Find the circles representing the ecliptic (dashed line) and celestial equator (solid line).

16. Name four constellations on the ecliptic.

17. What does the ecliptic represent?

18. Name four constellations that lie on the celestial equator.

19. What is the celestial equator?

20. Find the region representing the Milky Way, our home galaxy. Name three constellations visible tonight that lie along the plane of the Milky Way.

#### As you know, even though astrology formed the roots of astronomy, astrology has absolutely no scientific basis. As astronomers, we no longer concern ourselves with horoscopes.

21. Astronomically the zodiac is significant. Why?

#### Your sign of the zodiac supposedly represents the constellation the Sun was in on the day you were born. Check out this table that lists the astrological versus the astronomical signs of the zodiac (Watch astrology sink even further away from any scientific basis.)

22. Astrologically, what is your sign of the zodiac?

23. Astronomically, what is your sign of the zodiac?

24. Why would there be a difference between an astrological and an astronomical sign of the zodiac?

25. What is your favorite constellation.