Review for Exam #3

radiometric dating, half-life, and radioactive decay

Young's double-slit experiment with light

light, an electromagnetic wave

  • what produces light

  • the electromagnetic spectrum (main divisions)

    wavelength of a wave

    frequency of a wave - the number of waves that pass by per second

    Einstein=s postulates

  • the laws of physics are the same for all observers in relative uniform motion

  • the speed of light is the same for all observers in relative uniform motion

  • downfall of simultaneity

    time dilation and length contraction

    E = mc2

    Einstein=s equivalence principle - the laws of physics are the same for all freely falling observers

    general relativity

  • matter tells space how to curve

  • curved space tells matter how to move

  • time slows down in curved space

  • blackbody radiation, blackbody spectrum and its characteristics

    ultraviolet catastrophe - the incorrect prediction of classical physics that there should be an infinite amount of short-wavelength light energy in blackbody radiation

    Planck's constant h - determines the size (tiny!) of quantum effects

    photoelectric effect - light kicks electrons out from the surface of a metal - shows that light is a stream of particles (photons)

    photon - a massless particle of light, energy depends on the frequency of the light

    spectrum (wavelengths) emitted by a hot gas - bright, distinct emission lines of certain specific wavelengths (colors)

    Bohr model of the hydrogen atom

  • electron orbits

  • how it emits or absorbs a photon

  • electron and proton

    de Broglie's matter waves (probability waves)

    matter wavelength = h/(momentum)

    wave-particle duality

  • everything in nature interacts like a particle

  • everything in nature propagates (travels) like a wave

  • electron double-slit experiment - showed electron interference and that electrons propagate (travel) like waves

    Heisenberg uncertainty principle - a particle does not have, at the same time, an exact position and an exact momentum

    philosophical implications of quantum physics

  • end of determinism

  • end of objective reality

  • Henri Poincaré=s influence on Picasso and Einstein

    Hertzsprung-Russell (HR) diagram (axes and types of stars: main sequence stars, giants, supergiants, white dwarfs)

    Annie Jump Cannon and spectral types of stars (O B A F G K M)

    Cecelia Payne Gaposhkin and the composition of stars

    nuclear fusion in stars and the formation of elements up to iron

    stellar evolution and white dwarfs, neutron stars, and black holes

    event horizon, Schwarzschild radius, singularity

    Henrietta Swan Leavitt and Cepheid variable stars

    period-luminosity graph and how to find the distances to stars

    Edwin Hubble and the expanding universe (Hubble flow)

    Hubble=s law, Hubble=s constant, and the age of the universe

    Olbers= paradox

    the Big Bang and the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation (CMB)

    the critical density and geometry of the universe (open, closed, flat)

    Vera Rubin, dark matter and the rotation curves of galaxies

    Big Bang nucleosynthesis of hydrogen and helium

    the accelerating universe and Einstein=s cosmological constant

    amounts of normal matter (4%), dark matter (23%), and dark energy (73%)

    history of the universe - past and future


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    Last modified:  Sunday, April 24, 2005 04:45 PM