HONORS PS 1500 - IT=S ABOUT TIME

Review for Exam #2

clocks

• Egyptian days with 12 hours (12 constellations in sky)

• escapement (allows a hanging weight to descend in tiny steps)

• method of finding longitude

• music

• first written music about 1000 A.D.

• monophony and polyphony

• Georges-Louis Leclerc de Buffon and the heat within Earth

James Hutton (Afather of geology@ )

Charles Lyell

Lord Kelvin (William Thompson)

energy

kinetic energy

elastic and inelastic collisions

work

potential energy

kinds of potential energy

• gravitational PE

• spring, elastic, and chemical PE (all of these are ultimately due to electric charges)

• heat (thermal energy, the KE of randomly moving atoms or molecules)

caloric theory of heat

Newcomen engine

Joule's experiment (the mechanical equivalent of heat)

temperature (but not thermometers) and thermal equilibrium

forms of energy

• kinetic

• potential

• heat (thermal energy, the KE of randomly moving atoms or molecules)

• Note: the book is wrong when it includes nuclear energy as a form

of potential energy (on p. 103)

first law of thermodynamics (three equivalent statements)

• the total energy of an isolated system remains constant (the law of conservation of energy)

• change in energy of a system = energy in - energy out

• for a heat engine, heat input B > work and waste heat, so

• Qh = W + Qc [or (heat in) = (work done) + (heat out)]

second law of thermodynamics (three equivalent statements)

• in an isolated system, heat always flows from hot to cold

• there is no heat engine that will convert input heat completely into work; there is always some waste heat

• in an isolated system, the entropy never decreases

• third law of thermodynamics (it is impossible to reach a temperature of absolute zero)

efficiency of a heat engine

Carnot engine (the maximum efficiency heat engine)

absolute zero (coldest temperature possible) and the Kelvin scale

entropy, disorder, and probability

equilibrium (highest entropy, most disordered, smoothest, most probable) distribution

time's arrow, Newton=s laws, and the second law of thermodynamics

"heat death" of the universe

Byron=s A Darkness@

chaos theory (extreme sensitivity to initial conditions) and limits on determinism

algorithms and iterated algorithms

biological clocks

• Interval timer in humans (uses cortical oscillators)

• Circannual clock (about 1 year)

• Lifespan and limited cell division

• the hippocampus and anterograde amnesia

the temporal lobe and retrograde amnesia

Acutaneous rabbit@